DeDRM Tools 6.7.0 Released

Version 6.7.0 of the tools is now available. Please update to the latest version if you are having issues. To leave a comment, see the previous post: DRM Removal Tools for eBooks. can be downloaded from

Release Notes

This release should fix a compatibility problem with the latest release version of calibre and KFX files.

This release DOES NOT handle Kindle for Mac/PC 1.25 and later.
This release DOES NOT work with the latest calibre beta that requires Python 3 for plugins.

This release release DOES DROP SUPPORT for the stand-alone DeDRM apps. Only the calibre plugins are now included. (& the separate python scripts).

Decrypting KFX

Thanks to work by several people, the DeDRM calibre plugin can decrypt KFX format ebooks from Amazon as long as they are downloaded with Kindle for Mac/PC prior to version 1.25.

Install the KFX Input plugin to automatically locate all of the files that make up a KFX format book and gather them into a KFX-ZIP.  After the DeDRM plugin removes the DRM, then the KFX Input plugin will package it into a single KFX file.

See this post at the MobileRead calibre forum for more information on dealing with the KFX format.

DRM Removal Tools for eBooks

Version 6.7.0 released on 17 February, 2020

Welcome to Apprentice Alf’s blog

This blog is intended to help anyone looking for free and simple software for removing DRM from their Kindle ebooks, stripping DRM from their Adobe Digital Editions ebooks, getting rid of DRM from their Barnes and Noble ebooks, freeing their Kobo ebooks of DRM, or decrypting their Fictionwise eReader ebooks.

If you want to find out more about ebooks, DRM and why you will probably want to remove the DRM from your ebooks, see this post:  Ebook Formats, DRM and You — A Guide for the Perplexed.

If you already know that you want to strip the DRM from your ebooks, you’ve found the right place.

The Tools

To get started on removing DRM from your ebooks, just download the tools archive from the link below. Unzip the archive, and start reading.

The latest release can be found at the top of this page:

Getting Help with the Tools

If you have any questions about the tools, ebooks, and DRM, check the FAQs at the GitHub repository:

If you have any problems with the current tools, please ask for help in a comment on this post or open a new issue at the GitHub repository. If you are having a problem with an older version of the tools, please first update to the current version, and see if that solves your problem.

Before commenting here, please check the ReadMe file and the FAQs (see link above).

In any bug report or help request, please include:

  • which tool was used
  • which OS you are using
  • where the ebook file came from (device or application)
  • any error messages
  • a log of the DRM-removal attempt (see the FAQs on how to get a log).

Anti-Piracy Notice

Please only use these tools for gaining full access to your own ebooks for archiving/conversion/convenience. De-drmed ebooks should not be uploaded to open servers, torrents, or other methods of mass distribution. No help will be given to people doing such things. Authors, retailers and publishers all need to make a living, so that they can continue to produce books for us to read. Don’t be a parasite.

Origin of the Tools

The tools for removing DRM from ePubs were originally posted at i♥cabbages’ blog. The tools for Kindle/Mobipocket were originally posted at The Dark Reverser’s blog.

They have since been improved by many people, but mostly some_updates, DiapDealer, Apprentice Alf, and Apprentice Harper. While there are many sites that redistribute these tools, the most up-to-date versions of the tools are currently released here.

Other Sources

Anyone trying to sell you ebook DRM removal tools for Adobe Adept ePub and PDFs, Barnes & Noble ePubs, Kindle ebooks, Kobo ebooks, or eReader ebooks has probably just repackaged (an earlier) version of the tools available here.

DeDRM plugin for calibre: the simplest option for removing DRM from most ebooks

Post updated on 10 August, 2015

About calibre

Calibre is a free, open source, ebook management and conversion utility created and maintained by Kovid Goyal. It is available for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux.

Calibre cannot, on its own, remove DRM from ebooks. However, it is possible to added third-party software (‘plugins’) to enhance calibre.

To be able to use the DeDRM plugin for calibre, it is necessary to install calibre first. The latest version can be downloaded from

The DeDRM plugin for calibre

The DRM removal plugin ( can be found in the tools archive linked from the most recent post in this blog. The DeDRM plugin can remove DRM from Kindle eBooks (but not rented Kindle ebooks, books downloaded to a Kindle Fire, Kindle for iOS or the Windows Store Kindle App), Barnes & Noble ePub ebooks (but not books downloaded to the Windows Store Nook App) , any ebooks using Adobe Digital Editions DRM (this includes ePubs from Kobo and Sony that are downloaded for Adobe Digital Editions), and the older Mobipocket and eReader ebooks. For other kinds of ebooks see the other posts in this blog.

Installing the DeDRM plugin for calibre

  1. Download the latest tools package, and unzip it.
    (On Windows, right-click and “Extract All…”; After extracting all, rename the file to to prevent later confusion)
  2. Run calibre. From the Preferences menu select “Change calibre behavior”.
    (Do not click “Get plugins to enhance calibre”, that option is reserved for ‘official’ calibre plugins.)
  3. Click on Plugins (under “Advanced”) — it looks like a jigsaw puzzle piece.
  4. Click on the large “Load plugin from file” button
  5. Navigate to the tools folder unzipped in step 2
  6. Open the “DeDRM_calibre_plugin” folder
  7. Select the file in that folder
  8. Click on the “Add” (sometimes “Open”) button.
  9. Click on the “Yes” button in the “Are you sure?” warning dialog that appears. A “Success” dialog will appear, saying that the plug-in has been installed. Click on “OK”.

Customising the plugin with encryption keys

On Macintosh and Windows systems no customisation is required for ebooks from Kindle for Mac/PC, Nook Study, or Adobe Digital Editions (ADE), provided that calibre is run on the same computer and user account as the installation of Kindle for Mac/PC, Nook Study, or ADE to which the books were downloaded. The default key is found and stored in the preferences automatically. Anyone using Linux should read the ReadMe file for details of how to obtain the keys manually.

For other sources of ebooks, or on Linux systems, you must configure the plugin. To configure the plugin, you must find it in the list of plugins. Usually calibre will have automatically selected the DeDRM plugin after you add it. If not, the DeDRM plugin can be found under “File Type plugins”. It might easier to find if you check the “Show only user installed plugins” checkbox. You might need to click on the triangle next to the “File Type plugins” label to show the list of File Type plugins.

If it’s not already selected, click on the DeDRM plugin in the list to select it, and then click on the Customize plugin button. This will open that main “Customise DeDRM” dialog which contains a set of buttons describing different type and sources of ebooks. If you have DRMed ebooks that match the description on any of the buttons, you will need to click on the button and enter the required information in the sub-dialog that will pop up.

All the dialogs have a help link in the top right of the dialog, that gives further information about the required information.

When all the configuration for your DRMed ebooks has been entered, click “OK” in the main dialog to save all the information you’ve entered. You’re now ready to remove the DRM from your ebooks.

Using the DeDRM calibre plugin

The DeDRM calibre plugin removes DRM from ebooks as they are imported into calibre. So to use the plugin, just import your DRMed ebooks into calibre, and the DRM will be removed. If you have already imported your ebooks into calibre, you will need to remove the DRMed ebooks and import them again.

You can check that the DRM has been removed from an imported ebook by trying to view it using calibre’s built-in viewer. Note that for .azw3 Kindle ebooks you might need to check a checkbox in calibre’s preferences to say that .azw3 ebooks should be viewed using calibre’s internal viewer.

If things go wrong

The calibre developers are not involved in the development of the DRM removal plugin, and are not able to help with any DRM removal questions. If you have any difficulties following the instructions in this post, the calibre developers will not be able to help.

You must ask any questions about installing or using the DeDRM calibre plugin in a comment to most recent post on this blog.


Most of the work on converting the DRM removal scripts to a calibre plugin has been done by DiapDealer and Apprentice Alf.

Apple and ebooks: iBookstore DRM and how to remove it

Post updated on 22nd March, 2013

Requiem — Stripping DRM from Apple’s iBookstore Ebooks

Ebooks from Apple’s iBookstore are usually encrypted with Apple’s own Fairplay DRM scheme.

The only tool that removes Apple’s DRM is Requiem by Brahms. Requiem is not included in the main tools archive, and is separately maintained by its author, Brahms.

Version 4.x works with iTunes 10.6 and above, Windows and Mac OS X, but no longer removes DRM from iBooks.

The latest version to remove DRM from iBooks is 3.3.6 and works with iTunes 10.5.x, Windows and Mac OS X.

Requiem has a Tor website: http://tag3ulp55xczs3pn.onion. To reach the site using Tor, you will need to install Tor ( If you’re willing to sacrifice your anonymity, you can use the regular web with tor2web. Just go to

Alternatively, you can download it from these download links:

Requiem 3.3.6 for Windows:
MD5: 10ab191f2d86c692d57f6a07b4622cf8

Requiem 3.3.6 for Mac OS X:
MD5: 6d4167d47e6982ddbb8528212198b520

Requiem 3.3.6 source code:
MD5: 1636862796d573c693d56bcc526b60bd

If you have any problems with Requiem, I suggest you contact Brahms directly through their Tor website.

Anti-Piracy Notice

Please only use this application for gaining full access to your own ebooks for archiving/converson/convenience. De-drmed ebooks should not be uploaded to open servers, torrents, or other methods of mass distribution. No help will be given to people doing such things. Authors, retailers and publishers all need to make a living, so that they can continue to produce books for us to read. Don’t be a parasite.

— Alf.

Frequently Asked Questions about the DRM removal tools

Apprentice Harper keeps a more up-to-date FAQs at the GitHub repository:

Post updated on 12 January, 2017

Where can I find out more about ebook Formats and DRM Removal Tools?

  • This post explains the various ebook formats and DRM schemes. A guide for the perplexed.
  • This post describes how to install and use the DeDRM plugin for calibre.
  • This post gives the information you need to use the Windows DeDRM application which doesn’t need calibre.
  • This post gives the same information for the Mac OS X DeDRM application.
  • This post has links to downloading a zip archive of all the tools, as well as a comments area for asking questions.

Getting and Using the Tools

I can’t get the tools to work on my rented or library ebooks.

Support for removing DRM from rented or library ebooks is not provided.

I am trying to install the calibre plugin, but calibre keeps on saying that the plugin is invalid.

You might be trying to add the tools archive. The tools archive is not a calibre plugin. It is a collection of various DRM removal tools which includes calibre plugin. You must unzip the archive, and install the calibre plugin from a folder called “DeDRM_calibre_plugin” in the unzipped archive.

I’ve fully unzipped the tools archive, but I can’t find the calibre plugin when I try to add them to calibre. I use Windows.

You should select the zip file that is in the “DeDRM_calibre_plugin” folder, not any files inside the plugin’s zip archive. Make sure you are selecting from the tools folder that you created when you right clicked and selected “Extract All…” on the tools zip archive and not selecting a file inside the still-zipped tools archive.

(The problem is that Windows will allow apps to browse inside zip archives without needing to unzip them first. If there are zip archives inside the main zip archives, Windows will show them as unzipped as well. So what happens is people will unzip the to create the DeDRM_tools_X.X.X folder but when using calibre they will actually navigate to the still zipped file by mistake and cannot tell they have done so because they do not have file extensions showing. So to the unwary Windows user, it appears that the zip archive was unzipped and that everything inside it was unzipped as well so there is no way to install the plugins.

This is why we strongly recommend renaming the archive (after extracting its contents) to If people do that, they are less likely to navigate to the wrong location from inside calibre.)

I have installed the calibre plugins, but now I get an error “Plugin not configured! Decryption unsuccessful. This may be the first time you’ve used this plugin (or the first time since upgrading this plugin). You’ll need to open the customization dialog (Preferences->Plugins->File type plugins).”

You have an old version of the plugin for Barnes & Noble ePubs installed. Make sure you remove all of the old versions of the plugins after installing the new all-in-one DeDRM plugin.

How do I remove the old plugins?

  • Open calibre
  • Select the menu “Preferences/Change calibre behavior”
  • Select “Plugins” (on the bottom row, green jigsaw-puzzle button)
  • Check the check box “Show only user installed plugins”
  • Click on the “>” arrow in the line: “> File type plugins”
  • For each old plugin in turn,
    • Click on the plugin to select it
    • Click on the remove plugin button
    • Click on OK button in the confirmation dialog
    • If there are more to delete, click on the “>” arrow in the line: “> File type plugins” to re-open the list.
  • Click “Apply” (top left of dialog)
  • Click “Close” (bottom right of dialog)

I have installed the calibre plugin, but my books still have DRM. When I try to view or convert my books, calibre says they have DRM.

The DRM only gets removed when the ebook is imported into calibre. If the book is already in calibre, you must delete the book from calibre and import the ebook again. It is not enough to just import the book again: calibre will discard the newly imported DRM-free version as a duplicate, leaving only the original DRMed version.

I have installed the calibre plugin or I am trying to use one of the other tools, but I don’t know where my ebooks are stored.

Your ebooks are stored on your computer or on your ebook reader. You need to find them to be able to remove the DRM. If they are on your reader, you should be able to locate them easily. On your computer it’s not so obvious. Here are the default locations.


Navigating from your home folder:

Kindle ebooks are in either Library/Application Support/Kindle/My Kindle Content or Documents/My Kindle Content or Library/Containers/ Support/Kindle/My Kindle Content, depending on your version of Kindle for Mac.

Adobe Digital Editions ebooks are in Documents/Digital Editions


Navigating from your Documents folder:

Kindle ebooks are in My Kindle Content

Adobe Digital Editions ebooks are in My Digital Editions

Mobipocket Reader ebooks are in My ebooks

How can I download copies of my Barnes & Noble Nookbooks?

Even though Barnes & Noble has removed the download pages for their older PC and Mac software from their website, the installation files are still currently available on their servers via these direct links:

The downloaded books can be found in Documents/My Barnes & Noble eBooks. There are a few types of books which cannot be downloaded with this software, but they cannot currently be decrypted with the tools. These include Page Perfect Nookbooks (PDFs), enhanced ebooks (i.e. Nook Kids Read-to-me), and many image heavy items (i.e. comics/graphic novels).

Older Nook devices and older versions of the Nook Android app also allow access to the ebook files when connected via USB to your computer.

Be sure to download fresh copies before attempting to remove the DRM, as previously downloaded copies may not have the current encryption even though the device or app can still open them.

I have installed the calibre plugin, and the book is not already in calibre, but the DRM does not get removed.

You must use the exact file that is used by your ebook reading software or hardware. See the previous question on where to find your ebook files. Do not use an old copy you have that you can no longer read.

If you cannot read the ebook on your current device or installed software, the tools will certainly not be able to remove the DRM. Download a fresh copy that does work with your current device or installed software.

I have installed the calibre plugins and the book is not already in calibre, but the DRM does not get removed. It is a Barnes & Noble (nook) ebook.

Barnes and Noble changed the way they generate the decryption key for their DRMed ebooks starting in late 2014, with all accounts apparently being switched over to the new scheme by the end of March 2015.

There are currently two ways to get a decryption key for your Barnes & Noble (nook) ebooks:

  1. Enter your Barnes & Noble account email address and password into the configuration dialog.  The DeDRM tools v6.2.2 or later will use this information to retrieve the decryption key from the B&N servers.  The email address and password will not be stored.
  2. Install Nook Study (Windows download, Macintosh download), and download your ebooks through that. The DeDRM tools v6.2.0 or later will pick up the decryption key from the Nook Study log files automatically.

I have installed the calibre plugin, and the book is not already in calibre, but the DRM does not get removed. It is a Kindle book.

If you are on Windows 8 or newer and using the Windows Store Kindle app, you must download and install the Kindle for PC application directly from the Amazon website. The tools do not work with the Windows Store Kindle app.

If this book is from an E-Ink Kindle, you must enter the serial number into the configuration dialog. The serial number can be found on the device information screen under settings.  However, the easiest way to enter it into the configuration dialog without typos is to copy and paste it from the “Manage Your Content and Devices” page on the Amazon website.

If this book is from Kindle for Mac or Kindle for PC, you must have the Kindle software installed on the same computer as your copy of calibre.

If the book is from Kindle for PC or Kindle for Mac (version 1.17 or older) and you think you are doing everything right, and you are getting this message, it is possible that the files containing the encryption key aren’t quite in the format the tools expect. To try to fix this:

  1. Deregister Kindle for PC(Mac) from your Amazon account.
  2. Uninstall Kindle for PC(Mac)
  3. Delete the Kindle for PC(Mac) preferences
    • PC: Delete the directory [user folder]\AppData\Local\Amazon (it might be hidden) and [user folder]\Documents\My Kindle Content
    • Mac: Delete the directory [home folder]/Library/Application Support/Kindle/ and/or [home folder]/Library/Containers/ Support/Kindle/ (one or both may be present and should be deleted)
  4. Reinstall Kindle for PC(Mac)
  5. re-register Kindle for PC(Mac) with your Amazon account
  6. Download the ebook again. Do not use the files you have downloaded previously.

Some of my books had their DRM removed, but some still say that they have DRM and will not convert.

There are several possible reasons why only some books get their DRM removed.

  • You still don’t have the DRM removal tools working correctly, but some of your books didn’t have DRM in the first place.
  • You added your books to calibre in large batches. For some unknown reason, sometimes calibre stops using the plugin after a while on a single import. Delete the books that still have DRM and import them into calibre in batches of twenty.
  • Kindle only: The problem book is in the Topaz format and contains some coding that the tools do not understand. You will need to get a log of the deDRM attempt, and then send the book and the PID (shown in the log) for the book to Apprentice Harper, so that the tools can be updated. Please open a new issue over at the GitHub repository.
  • Kindle only: The problem book is in the KFX format which has not been reverse-engineered yet. To get the book in a format the tools can decrypt, either download the book with Kindle for PC/Mac version 1.17 (or earlier) or go to the Manage Your Content and Devices page at Amazon and choose “download and transfer via USB” for an E-ink Kindle (enter its serial number into the tool’s customization).

If you are still having problems with particular books, you will need to create a log of the DRM removal attempt for one of the problem books, and post that in a comment.

I didn’t use to have any problems with the tools and my Kindle ebooks, but now I’m getting .azw3 files instead of .mobi files.

Amazon have introduced a format called KF8 which the tools identify by giving the extension .azw3. Recent versions of calibre know about .azw3 files and can convert them to Mobipocket or ePub. To view .azw3 files with calibre it is necessary to tell calibre to use its internal viewer for .azw3 files in calibre Preferences/Change calibre behaviour/Behaviour/.

Do the tools work on books from Kobo?

Kobo uses Adobe Digital Editions encryption, but it also uses its own application and encryption system, so you might not have already installed Adobe Digital Editions. Version 2.0.1 (download here) is strongly recommended. Version 3.0 and later are capable of utilizing a new encryption scheme which the tools cannot unlock.

Once you have installed ADE 2.0.1, you must authorise it with an Adobe ID. Failing to do that will link your DRMed ebooks to this particular installation of ADE, instead of to an ID that can be used with any new installation. Do this before you try getting any DRMed ebooks loaded into Adobe Digital Editions. (Help menu/Authorize Computer… Choose Adobe ID for “ebook Vendor” and enter your Adobe ID and password. Adobe ID is usually your email address.)

After you have installed ADE 2.0.1 and authorised it with an Adobe ID:

You can find all your Kobo books in your library on the Kobo website.

Some are already DRM-free and have a blue “DOWNLOAD EPUB” (or PDF) button.

Those with Adobe DRM have a blue “ADOBE DRM EPUB” (or PDF) button.

Clicking on the “ADOBE DRM EPUB” (or PDF) button downloads an ‘.acsm’ file. This is a link file used by Adobe Digital Editions to download the actual epub or pdf file, and it is at this point that the DRM gets applied for your installation of Adobe Digital Editions.

Make sure your installation of ADE 2.0.1 is authorised to your Adobe ID before proceeding. Open the ‘.acsm’ file with Adobe Digital Editions 2.0.1, and the ePub or pdf file will download. See Where are my ebooks? above to find the location of the downloaded ADE epub or pdf. You can now use whichever of the DeDRM removal tools is most convenient for you on this file to obtain your DRM-free book.

Alternatively, you may use the Obok calibre plugin to remove DRM from Kobo books downloaded with the Kobo Desktop application (not the Windows Store app) or on an attached E-Ink Kobo reader (but not a Kobo Arc or Kobo Vox). If both are available, ebooks will be read from the attached E-Ink Kobo reader. To import from the desktop application, unplug the Kobo reader. See the Readme file inside the Obok_calibre_plugin folder of the tools archive for further instructions.

Do the tools work on books from the Google Play store? Or other stores with Adobe DRM?

Google Play books can be downloaded from My Books at the Google Play books website. Click the menu button (3 vertical dots) for the book that you want and chose Download EPUB or Download PDF.

Other ebook stores which use Adobe DRM should have a page on their website where you can download your book files. Look for My Library or My Books while signed into your account.

As described in the answer about Kobo ebooks above, you will first download ‘.acsm’ files which should be opened with Adobe Digital Editions 2.0.1 (authorised with your Adobe ID) to obtain the actual epub or pdf book.

I cannot solve my problem the DeDRM plugin, and now I need to ‘post a log’. How do I do that?

First, remove the DRMed book from calibre. Then look under the Preferences menu for ‘Restart in debug mode.’ After calibre reopens, import your book and then close calibre. A text log of the import will automatically open. Paste the information into a comment on the main post.

I cannot solve my problem with one of the DeDRM applications, and now I need to ‘post a log’. How do I do that?

On Macintosh, the DeDRM application creates a log file on your desktop every time it is run. Copy the contents of that (it is a simple text file) and paste it into your comment.

On Windows, the DeDRM application creates a log file in your user directory every time it is run. Copy the contents of that (it is a simple text file) and paste it into your comment.

Why don’t the tools work with Kindle Fire ebooks?

The Kindle Fire is Android based unlike any of the earlier standalone Kindles and the current tools will not work with ebooks from Kindle Fire devices.

Your only workaround is to install Kindle for PC or Kindle for Mac and use books from there instead.

Why doesn’t the UDID of my iOS device work for my Kindle for iOS ebooks?

Unfortunately, for most people, the tools no longer work with ebooks from the Kindle for iOS application. This is because Apple no longer allows applications to use the UDID, and so Amazon can’t get access to it.

Some long-term users of the iOS application may find it still works, because Amazon still has a note of their UDID from before the ban came into operation. New installations definitely won’t work.

Your only workaround is to install Kindle for PC or Kindle for Mac and use books from there instead.

Do the tools work on books from the Apple iBooks Store?

Books from Apple’s iBooks Store use a variant of Apple’s Fairplay DRM and therefore the tools in the main tools archive will not work with these ebooks. The only tools previously known to work for these books was Requiem version 3.3.6 by Brahms. See this post for more details.  Unfortunately, I am unaware of any tools currently capable of removing DRM from Apple’s iBooks.

I’ve got the tools archive and I’ve read all the FAQs but I still can’t install the tools and/or the DRM removal doesn’t work

  • Read the ReadMe_First.txt file in the top level of the tools archive
  • Read the ReadMe file in the folder of the tools you want to use.
  • If you still can’t remove the DRM, ask in the comments on the main post of this blog, reporting the error as precisely as you can, what platform you use, what tool you have tried, what errors you get, and what versions you are using. If the problem happens when running one of the tools, post a log (see previous questions on how to do this).

General Questions

Once the DRM has been removed, is there any trace of my personal identity left in the ebook?

The tools only remove the DRM. No attempt is made to remove any personally identifying information.

What are Kindle Topaz ebooks? HTMLZ? SVG?

Most Amazon Kindle ebooks are Mobipocket format ebooks, or the new KF8 format. However, some are in a format known as Topaz. The Topaz format is only used by Amazon. A Topaz ebook is a collections of glyphs and their positions on each page tagged with some additional information from that page including OCRed text (Optical Character Recognition generated Text) to allow searching, and some additional layout information. Each page of a Topaz ebook is effectively a description of an image of that page. To convert a Topaz ebook to another format is not easy as there is not a one-to-one mapping between glyphs and characters/fonts. To account for this, two different formats are generated by the DRM removal software. The first is an html description built from the OCRtext and images stored in the Topaz file (HTMLZ). This format is easily reflowed but may suffer from typical OCRtext errors including typos, garbled text, missing italics, missing bolds, etc. The second format uses the glyph and position information to create an accurate scalable vector graphics (SVG) image of each page of the book that can be viewed in web browsers that support svg images (Safari, Firefox 4 or later, etc). Additional conversion software can be used to convert these SVG images to an image only PDF file. The DeDRM and Kindlebooks tools from this site provide both versions of the Topaz ebook so that the user can choose which one to use. The K4MobiDeDRM plugin only produces the html version of the ebook. The html version can be manually cleaned up and spell checked and then converted using Sigil/calibre to epubs, mobi ebooks, and etc.

I’ve bought Mobipocket ebooks from an on-line retailer without having to enter the PID of my copy of Mobipocket Reader, and I can read them in Mobipocket Reader. But when I try to convert them to another format, calibre says that they have DRM, but the tools say they don’t contain a PIDs, and I should open them in Mobipocket Reader. What’s going wrong?

The books are downloaded without a PID, but still encrypted. Opening them in Mobipocket Reader causes Mobipocket Reader to create a copy of the ebook that contains with the Mobipocket Reader’s PID. This copy is stored in the My ebooks folder in your Documents folder. It’s this copy that you must use with the DRM removal tools.

Are the tools open source? How can I be sure they are safe and not a trojan horse?

All the DRM removal tools hosted here are almost entirely scripts of one kind or another: Python, Applescript or Windows Batch files. So they are inherently open source, and open to inspection by everyone who downloads them. The source for any compiled pieces are provided right inside the tools themselves.

I have an old encrypted PDF file that won’t open in Adobe Digital Editions, how can I remove the DRM?

If your PDF ebooks cannot be read in Adobe Digital Editions, the tools here cannot help. They are probably encrypted using the Content Server 3 (or earlier) methods which Adobe no longer support, not even to allow conversion to Content Server 4 (AKA Adobe Digital Editions).

See for more details.

Adobe only allowed a nine month window (March-December 2009) for migration to Adobe Digital Editions after the Content Server 3 servers were discontinued.

You might be able to find tools to remove the DRM from other sites, but there are several different old encryption schemes for PDF files, and I’m unfamiliar with them. Tetrachroma’s blog might be a good starting point for Windows users, as he’s done a lot of work on some PDF DRM scheme called ‘File Open’.

What ebooks do these tools work on?

The tools linked from this blog remove DRM from PDF, EPUB, eReader, Mobipocket, KF8, Print Replica and Topaz format ebooks using Adobe Adept, Barnes & Noble, Amazon and eReader DRM schemes.

Note these tools do NOT ‘crack’ the DRM. They simply allow the book’s owner (and only the book’s owner) to use the encryption key information already stored someplace on their computer or device to decrypt the ebook in the same manner the official ebook reading software uses.

Microsoft LIT format ebooks using Microsoft’s DRM scheme can have the DRM removed using ConvertLit from

Apple’s Fairplay DRM scheme, used on most ebooks bought at Apple’s iBookstore could previously have the DRM removed using Requiem. See my post Apple and ebooks: iBookstore DRM and how to remove it for more details.  Unfortunately, I am unaware of any tools currently capable of removing DRM from Apple’s iBooks.

Who wrote these scripts?

The authors tend to identify themselves only by pseudonyms:

  • The Adobe Adept and Barnes & Noble scripts were created by i♥cabbages
  • The Amazon Mobipocket and eReader scripts were created by The Dark Reverser
  • The Amazon K4PC DRM/format was further decoded by Bart Simpson aka Skindle
  • The Amazon K4 Mobi tool was created by by some_updates, DiapDealer and mdlnx
  • The Amazon Topaz DRM removal script was created by CMBDTC
  • The Amazon Topaz format conversion was created by some_updates, clarknova, and Bart Simpson
  • The DeDRM all-in-one AppleScript application was created by Apprentice Alf
  • The DeDRM all-in-one Python application was created by some_updates
  • The DeDRM all-in-one calibre plugins was created by Apprentice Alf, based on plugins created by DiapDealer
  • The Scuolabooks tool was created by Hex
  • The Microsoft code was created by drs
  • The Apple DRM removal tool was created by Brahms

Since the original versions of the scripts and programs were released, various people have helped to maintain and improve them, mainly some_updates, DiapDealer, Apprentice Alf, and Apprentice Harper.

DeDRM Application for Windows XP and above

Post updated on 22nd March, 2013

System Requirements: Windows XP and above.

The simplest way to remove the DRM from your ebooks is to use calibre and the DeDRM calibre plugin, as described in my post DeDRM plugin for calibre: the simplest option for removing DRM from most ebooks. If you don’t want to use calibre, for whatever reason, here is an alternative.

The DeDRM application identifies an ebook’s format, and then removes the DRM from that ebook by running the appropriate DRM removal python script.

Installing the DeDRM Application

  1. Install Python

    • Download ActivePython 2.7.2 (or later 2.7.x version) for Windows (x86) from
      (Do not download the ActivePython for Windows (64-bit, x64) version, even if you are running 64-bit Windows, nor any version 3.0 later. Do not use the version from instead, as it is missing some needed libraries)
    • Double-click the installer “ActivePython-” to run it. Accept the default options.
  2. Install PyCrypto

    • Download “PyCrypto 2.1 for 32bit Windows and Python 2.7” from
    • Unzip it (by right-clicking and selecting “Extract All…”). This will produce a file “pycrypto-2.1.0.win32-py2.7.exe”.
    • Double-click the installer “pycrypto-2.1.0.win32-py2.7.exe” to run it. Accept the default options.
  3. Install the DeDRM application

    • Download the latest tools zip archive (link in this post).
    • Unzip the tools archive (by right-clicking and selecting “Extract All…”).
    • Open the folder “DeDRM_Application_Windows” that’s in the unzipped tools folder.
    • Read the “DeDRM_App_ReadMe.txt” file that’s in the “DeDRM_Application_Windows” folder!
    • Drag the “DeDRM_App” folder from the “DeDRM_Application_Windows” to your “My Documents” folder or wherever is convenient for you.
    • Open the “DeDRM_App” folder you’ve just moved, and make a short-cut of the “DeDRM_Drop_Target.bat” file (right-click/Create Shortcut). Drag the shortcut file onto your Desktop.

Using the DeDRM Application

To remove DRM from a Kindle for PC or an Adobe Digital Edition ebook, just drag & drop the ebook file onto the “DeDRM_Drop_Target.bat” shortcut when the application is not running.

For other ebooks, you will need to enter some extra information. Run the DeDRM application by double-clicking “DeDRM_Drop_Target.bat” shortcut to access the configuration dialogs.

To remove DRM from several ebooks or folders of ebooks at once, just drag & drop the files and folders onto the “DeDRM_Drop_Target.bat” shortcut when it is not running.


eReader ebooks: The output from an encrypted eReader file is a .pmlz zip file of the unencypted PML and images. Calibre can import the PMLZ file and convert to other formats.

Amazon Topaz ebooks: Some Amazon Kindle ebooks are in a format known as Topaz. This AppleScript will remove the DRM from the Topaz files, but to allow the file to be converted into other formats, the Topaz format must be converted during the de-drming process. The end result is that you end up with two files from one Topaz format ebook. One is the text (& pictures) of the book in HTML format created from the OCR text that’s stored in the Topaz file. Another is a set of SVG page images which very closely resemble the pages of the book the Topaz file was created from. For most purposes, you’ll only need the HTML file, but if the OCR is poor, you might want to unzip the folder of SVG images to check the pages or convert them to an image based PDF file.

Anti-Piracy Notice

Please only use this application for gaining full access to your own ebooks for archiving/converson/convenience. De-drmed ebooks should not be uploaded to open servers, torrents, or other methods of mass distribution. No help will be given to people doing such things. Authors, retailers and publishers all need to make a living, so that they can continue to produce books for us to read. Don’t be a parasite.

About the Windows DeDRM Application

This application is written in Python, and can be opened and edited using any good text editor.

— Alf.

Ebook Formats, DRM and You — A Guide for the Perplexed

Post updated on 22nd March, 2013

DRM: What it is and why you should care about it.

DRM is used by publishers to restrict what you can do with your ebooks. DRM controls which devices you can use to read your ebook, and stops you converting your ebooks from one format to another.

DRM makes buying and using ebooks harder. When you first start using ebooks, you might not notice the restrictions very much. But the restrictions are there.

There are several different DRM schemes. Ebooks with one DRM scheme can’t be read on a device that uses a different DRM scheme. Some DRM schemes limit ebooks to one device only, so if you want to read that ebook on a different device, it’s necessary to download the ebook again. Others require new devices to be authorised by a central server on the Internet.

When you want to use a different ebook reader, or if the supplier stops supporting the ebooks you’ve bought, you may lose access to your DRMed ebooks. This has already happened to many people, with ebooks and other digital media.

So to be able to read your ebooks on all the devices you have now, and to be sure that you will still be able to read your ebooks in the future, you will want to remove the DRM.

Anti-Piracy Notice

Please only use this application for gaining full access to your own ebooks for archiving/converson/convenience. De-drmed ebooks should not be uploaded to open servers, torrents, or other methods of mass distribution. No help will be given to people doing such things. Authors, retailers and publishers all need to make a living, so that they can continue to produce books for us to read. Don’t be a parasite.

Current Ebook Formats and DRM schemes

There are three main current eBook formats.

  • ePub Defined by the IDPF and used by many ebook vendors.
  • PDF Created by Adobe, and in some forms an international standard. Less popular on ebook readers than on computer screen. PDF is hard to convert into other ebook formats.
  • Kindle Owned by Amazon, the Kindle ebook format is actually four different file formats.
    1. Mobipocket One of the oldest ebook formats, readily converted into other file formats.
    2. Topaz Created by Amazon, conversion to other formats relies on the quality of the OCR text in the format. The quality of conversions are therefore variable.
    3. Print Replica This is actually a PDF file wrapped in Amazon’s own packaging.
    4. KF8 Amazon’s newest ebook format, with rich formating capabilities similar to ePub, and readily converted to ePub.

There are several ebook DRM schemes

  • For ePub there are separate DRM schemes from Apple, Adobe and Barnes & Noble.
  • For PDF there are several different DRM schemes, several from Adobe, one from the Italian firm, ScuolaBook, and one from Barnes & Noble (NOOK Study).
  • For Kindle, DRM is provided by Amazon.
  • There are other schemes not covered by the tools in this blog.

Ways to Remove DRM

The tools in the archive maintained on this blog can remove all the kinds of DRM described above from ebooks, except for some of the older Adobe PDF DRM schemes, the ePub DRM scheme by Apple, and the NOOK Study PDF DRM scheme by Barnes & Noble. To remove DRM from ebooks sold by Apple, a separately maintained tool is required, described in my post Apple and ebooks: iBookstore DRM and how to remove it. There is currently no tools that removes DRM from Barnes & Noble NOOK Study ebooks. There are commercially available tools for the older Adobe PDF DRM schemes.

The simplest way for most people (especially Windows users) to remove the other kinds of DRM from their ebooks is to use the calibre plugin, as described in my post DeDRM plugin for Calibre: the simplest option for removing DRM from most ebooks.

Mac OS X 10.4 and later users who don’t want to use calibre can use the DeDRM AppleScript application, as described in my post, DeDRM AppleScript for Mac OS X 10.4 and later.

Windows users who don’t want to use calibre can use the DeDRM_App Python application, as described in my post, DeDRM Application for Windows XP and above.

Linux users should use the DeDRM plugin for calibre, or can extract the individual tools if they wish. Specific Linux instructions are included in the ReadMe that accompanies the DeDRM plugin.

A note about Amazon ebook formats

Amazon’s Kindle devices and software use a variety of ebook formats, and books bought from Amazon come in a variety of ebook formats. Amazon tries hard to hide this complexity from their customers, and does this by only sending each device ebook formats that it can understand.

Once the DRM is removed from an Amazon ebook, it becomes important to know the ebook’s format, so that it is not sent to devices that can not read its format.

For this reason, the tools will usually change the ebook file name extension. .mobi is used for Mobipocket format ebooks (all Kindle devices can read these). .azw3 is used for KF8 format ebooks. Not all Kindle devices can read these. Currently, Kindle 1, Kindle 2, Kindle 3 with firmware less than 3.4 and Kindle for iOS cannot read KF8 format ebooks, and ebooks in that format will need to be converted to Mobipocket format before transferring to such devices.

Amazon’s Topaz format cannot be read by any other devices, and is converted during decryption to a .htmlz archive that calibre can convert to other formats.

Obsolete Ebook Formats and DRM schemes

Fictionwise .pdb eReader format ebooks

The Fictionwise eReader format used its own DRM scheme. If you have the name and number key for your eReader ebooks, you can remove the DRM from them using any of the tools in the main archive.

Rocket .rb format ebooks

The Rocket ebook format used its own DRM scheme. If you are still able to read your Rocket ebooks on your Reader, you might be able to remove the DRM using the information and tools provided in the Other Tools folder of the main archive.

Microsoft .LIT format ebooks

The Microsoft LIT format used its own DRM scheme. If you are still able to read your Microsoft LIT ebooks on your computer, you can probably remove the DRM from them using the Convert LIT program, which is available at at

— Alf.