DRM Removal Tools for eBooks

Version 6.6.3 released on 30 March, 2019

Welcome to Apprentice Alf’s blog

This blog is intended to help anyone looking for free and simple software for removing DRM from their Kindle ebooks, stripping DRM from their Adobe Digital Editions ebooks, getting rid of DRM from their Barnes and Noble ebooks, freeing their Kobo ebooks of DRM, or decrypting their Fictionwise eReader ebooks.

If you want to find out more about ebooks, DRM and why you will probably want to remove the DRM from your ebooks, see this post:  Ebook Formats, DRM and You — A Guide for the Perplexed.

If you already know that you want to strip the DRM from your ebooks, you’ve found the right place.

The Tools

To get started on removing DRM from your ebooks, just download the tools archive from the link below. Unzip the archive, and start reading.

The latest release can be found at the top of this page:

Getting Help with the Tools

If you have any questions about the tools, ebooks, and DRM, check the FAQs at the GitHub repository:

If you have any problems with the current tools, please ask for help in a comment on this post or open a new issue at the GitHub repository. If you are having a problem with an older version of the tools, please first update to the current version, and see if that solves your problem.

Before commenting here, please check the ReadMe file and the FAQs (see link above).

In any bug report or help request, please include:

  • which tool was used
  • which OS you are using
  • where the ebook file came from (device or application)
  • any error messages
  • a log of the DRM-removal attempt (see the FAQs on how to get a log).

Anti-Piracy Notice

Please only use these tools for gaining full access to your own ebooks for archiving/conversion/convenience. De-drmed ebooks should not be uploaded to open servers, torrents, or other methods of mass distribution. No help will be given to people doing such things. Authors, retailers and publishers all need to make a living, so that they can continue to produce books for us to read. Don’t be a parasite.

Origin of the Tools

The tools for removing DRM from ePubs were originally posted at i♥cabbages’ blog. The tools for Kindle/Mobipocket were originally posted at The Dark Reverser’s blog.

They have since been improved by many people, but mostly some_updates, DiapDealer, Apprentice Alf, and Apprentice Harper. While there are many sites that redistribute these tools, the most up-to-date versions of the tools are currently released here.

Other Sources

Anyone trying to sell you ebook DRM removal tools for Adobe Adept ePub and PDFs, Barnes & Noble ePubs, Kindle ebooks, Kobo ebooks, or eReader ebooks has probably just repackaged (an earlier) version of the tools available here.


5,543 thoughts on “DRM Removal Tools for eBooks

  1. I’m trying to reinstall the DRM removal plugin, version 6.6.3. I keep getting a message saying the zip file is invalid, because it “does not contain a top-level init.py file.” Will it help to load an older version? Where can I find older versions of the plugin? The apprenticeharper github page doesn’t have any of the older versions.

      • Thanks, Laura. I’ve been doing so many mods for games recently it never even occurred to me to UNZIP the folder first. I’m an idiot. LOL

        Oh, wait … a zip folder in a zip folder. I seem to remember that tripping me up before. HAHAHA!

        It installed, but still no key retrieval. I wanted to see if NookStudy would work in place of Nook for PC, but that won’t connect either.

        And trying to read my old, dead hard drive with a USB3 adaptor crashed my computer twice and couldn’t read or open anything.

        • Yeah, Nook key retrieval is broken. You could possibly find it on a rooted Android device with the Nook app or with a rooted Nook device.

  2. I’m trying to troubleshoot using DeDRM. I noticed that other users have said that the Kindle version can’t be 1.25 or 1.26, so I just downloaded 1.24.3 Kindle for PC — but still having the same issue. Debugging gives me the below. Would love any help!

    C:\Users\Isaac>calibre-debug -g
    calibre 3.23 embedded-python: True is64bit: False
    Windows-10-10.0.17134-SP0 Windows (’32bit’, ‘WindowsPE’)
    32bit process running on 64bit windows
    (‘Windows’, ’10’, ‘10.0.17134’)
    Python 2.7.12+
    Windows: (’10’, ‘10.0.17134’, ‘SP0′, u’Multiprocessor Free’)
    Interface language: None
    Successfully initialized third party plugins: Gather KFX-ZIP File Type (from KFX Input) (1, 3, 0) && DeDRM (6, 6, 3) && Package KFX File Type (from KFX Input) (1, 3, 0) && KFX metadata reader (from KFX Input) (1, 3, 0) && KFX Input (1, 3, 0)
    Turning on automatic hidpi scaling
    devicePixelRatio: 1.0
    logicalDpi: 120.0 x 120.0
    physicalDpi: 190.5 x 190.5
    Using calibre Qt style: True
    [0.00] Starting up…
    [0.02] Showing splash screen…
    [0.16] splash screen shown
    [0.16] Initializing db…
    [0.19] db initialized
    [0.19] Constructing main UI…
    [2.83] main UI initialized…
    [2.83] Hiding splash screen
    [3.44] splash screen hidden
    [3.45] Started up in 3.45 seconds with 9 books
    stdout+stderr from file dialog helper: [”, ”]
    piped data from file dialog helper: [‘\xe7\xdb\xac\xeb\xdd\xf2B\xccm)\x99\xc2\xf6\x17O\xd4!\x02\xd6\xf1\x14^\xfc\r\xcaS\x02\x8e34\x1e\xf9’, ‘C:\Users\Isaac\Documents\My Kindle Content\B002AKPB7K_EBOK\B002AKPB7K_EBOK.azw’]
    Gather KFX-ZIP File Type (from KFX Input) 1.3.0: Importing C:\Users\Isaac\Documents\My Kindle Content\B002AKPB7K_EBOK\B002AKPB7K_EBOK.azw
    KFX Input: Gathered 4 files as C:\Users\Isaac\AppData\Local\Temp\calibre_icceml\h44l98.kfx-zip
    DeDRM v6.6.3: Trying to decrypt h44l98.kfx-zip
    Using Library AlfCrypto Python
    Decrypting KFX-ZIP ebook: h44l98
    Got DSN key from database default_key
    Found 1 keys to try after 0.2 seconds
    Decrypting KFX DRM voucher: amzn1.drm-voucher.v1.768d5562-3597-42d7-8c1b-8c20093afda2.voucher
    DeDRM v6.6.3: Failed to decrypt with error: Failed to decrypt KFX DRM voucher with any key
    DeDRM v6.6.3: Looking for new default Kindle Key after 0.2 seconds
    searching for kinfoFiles in C:\Users\Isaac\AppData\Local
    Found K4PC 1.9+ kinf2011 file: C:\Users\Isaac\AppData\Local\Amazon\Kindle\storage.kinf2011
    Decrypted key file using IDString ‘2531465429’ and UserName ‘4973616163’
    DeDRM v6.6.3: Found 1 new key
    Decrypting KFX-ZIP ebook: h44l98
    Got DSN key from database default_key_1
    Found 1 keys to try after 0.4 seconds
    Decrypting KFX DRM voucher: amzn1.drm-voucher.v1.768d5562-3597-42d7-8c1b-8c20093afda2.voucher
    DeDRM v6.6.3: Ultimately failed to decrypt after 0.4 seconds. Read the FAQs at Harper’s repository: https://github.com/apprenticeharper/DeDRM_tools/blob/master/FAQs.md
    Running file type plugin DeDRM failed with traceback:
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “site-packages\calibre\customize\ui.py”, line 171, in _run_filetype_plugins
    File “calibre_plugins.dedrm.init“, line 624, in run
    File “calibre_plugins.dedrm.init“, line 574, in KindleMobiDecrypt
    DeDRMError: DeDRM v6.6.3: Ultimately failed to decrypt after 0.4 seconds. Read the FAQs at Harper’s repository: https://github.com/apprenticeharper/DeDRM_tools/blob/master/FAQs.md
    Package KFX File Type (from KFX Input) 1.3.0: Packaging C:\Users\Isaac\AppData\Local\Temp\calibre_icceml\h44l98.kfx-zip
    Processing container: B002AKPB7K_EBOK.azw
    Running file type plugin Package KFX File Type (from KFX Input) failed with traceback:
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “site-packages\calibre\customize\ui.py”, line 171, in _run_filetype_plugins
    File “calibre_plugins.kfx_input.package_filetype”, line 22, in run
    File “calibre_plugins.kfx_input.package_filetype”, line 35, in run_kfx
    File “calibre_plugins.kfx_input.kfxlib.yj_book”, line 52, in convert_to_single_kfx
    File “calibre_plugins.kfx_input.kfxlib.yj_book”, line 118, in decode_book
    File “calibre_plugins.kfx_input.kfxlib.yj_book”, line 205, in get_container
    KFXDRMError: Book container B002AKPB7K_EBOK.azw has DRM and cannot be converted
    KFX metadata reader activated for C:\Users\Isaac\AppData\Local\Temp\calibre_icceml\wbanqr_add_books\0\B002AKPB7K_EBOK.kfx-zip
    Added Wildflower to db in: 0.4
    Added 1 books in 3.0 seconds
    Worker Launch took: 0.296999931335

    • There is a bug in the logic of the DeDRM plugin that is coming into play with this log.

      It first tries to decrypt the KFX book and fails due to a lack of the proper key. It then obtains the key and tries to decrypt the book again, and it fails again. However it does not report the reason for the second failure. It could be that obtaining the proper key failed (likely caused by the book having been downloaded by a new Kindle for PC version) or it may be due to some other cause, such as a rented or borrowed book.

      It DeDRM plugin allows you to create a new keyfile separately from importing a book by using the configuration dialog. I suggest doing that first and then trying to import the book. That may provide a more explicit error message in the log.

      • @jhwll
        The following is more like guesswork, do not take it for granted. May be some other (Laura?) can chime in, if I am totally off.

        KFX is a newer format and works only on Kindle Paperwhite Version 2 and Newer, and requires the right firmware.
        Older firmware and Kindles without the capability for KFX use DRM for which the Key can be found or input and DeDRM works – which might even be true for older KFX versions, it worked a short time for me with DeDRM and the KFX plugin.

        The newest KFX files with DRM, starting with newer firmware for the Kindles has a change which means DeDRM is not working anymore, wether a Key is not found or the DRM itself is different, is unkown (to me at least).
        My Kindle Voyage shows currently Version, which allows to filter the booklist read/unread – one of the most significant. visible and useful changes, imho. So, if your Software Version is showing at least 5.10.x, you cannot use DeDRM with import from the Kindle for ebooks with KFX.

        Most Kindles have the same current firmware version number, if it is current, so this is with the date today being May 24, 2019 the current firmware as listed at Amazon:
        for Paperwhite 2, 3, 4, Oasis 1, 2 and Voyage. The newer Kindle shows 5.11.1 (missing the second .1) at Amazon for download (Kindle Version 10).

        If you use Kindle for Mac or Kindle for Windows, you have use the old version mentioned which does not download KFX files. And download the ebook again, to get the right filetype.

        For the Mac I modified the Kindle for Mac as per the instruction on mobileread, so I can use the newest version, but the disadvantage is, when I quit the App, it crashes with a crash-log sent to Apple, so there is that and not everyone might feel good about that. Also if there is an update, I have to manually modify it again.

        • Kindle for PC/Mac version 1.17 cannot download KFX format. Kindle for PC/Mac versions 1.19 through 1.24 unmodified will download KFX files that can be used with the DeDRM and KFX Input plugins. You can modify Kindle for PC/Mac 1.19 through 1.24 so that it doesn’t download KFX files. As you said, it’s still possible to modify the latest versions of Kindle for Mac so that they don’t download KFX files, and you can still DeDRM those older formats. But Kindle for PC must be 1.24 or earlier for DeDRMing either KFX or older formats.

          Older E-ink Kindles with firmware prior to 5.6.5 do not use the KFX format. Prior to firmware 5.10.2, you could DeDRM KFX files directly from E-ink Kindles, but no longer.

  3. Help! I migrated from an older iMac to an iMac Pro running OS 10.13.6.
    Tried running DRM 6.2.2 as usual, but got an error message: “Can’t get POSIX path of alias “/Applications/DeDRM-Mac/DeDRM_Mac_v6.2.2/DeDRM.app/Contents/Resources/erdr2pml.py”. (-1728). Tried opening the DRM application itself (instead of the alias), same error.
    Installed DRM 6.2.3, get a similar POSIX path error message.
    Any idea of how to fix this?

    • I’m guessing you meant you tried 6.6.3. There are some suggestions in the FAQs for the Mac app, but nothing that sounds like this error. People have been having trouble getting the latest versions of the standalone apps running ever since support for Amazon’s KFX format was added to DeDRM. So you might have better luck with the last version before that — 6.5.5.

      • Sometimes Apps do not work if they are directly unzipped into the /Apps -Path structure.
        Something to try out: move the App to a different place (easiest is Desktop), start it once, quit. Move back into the /Apps-Path structure.
        There should be an error message when first starting, but I forgot what it said.
        Reasons for not seeing it: it is in the background or does not have the focus, or it is clicked before reading (and understanding it).

        It is some kind of security measure which is new since 10.14 mojave.
        And the changes do not really help, like others they only nag.

      • DRM-ed PDF newspaper/magazine issues. And didn’t mean to suggest they should support it, just wondered if anyone here knew of any discussion about removing the DRM from this particular file. Been searching for a while, doesn’t seem to be terribly known.

  4. DeDRM for Amazon ebooks works fine on Linux: I have used kindle-for-pc with calibre on windows, copied the key file from calibre on windows to calibre on Linux and have been able to de-drm kindle books on Linux–I have also done download for transfer via USB on linux and dedrm’ed fine on linux using the serial from my 10-th gen. kindle.

    Given that, I wonder what would be involved in creating a standalone app for Linux, as already exist for windows and Mac? I’ve glanced at those two, and to be honest, I don’t see where one would start, but I’m thinking there is probably a way if one had some understanding of how they work.

    Would any of the Apprentices have any interest in looking into this, or at least drop me a hint as to feasibility and possibly some further hints on how to go about it? (I’m pretty fluent in C, not-so-much in Python, but would be willing to take a crack at it.)

    thanks in advance!


      • OK, thanks Paul. I’m playing with the windows one (not even trying the click-on-the-bat file thing, just do “python .pyw and I get the form to fill in), and am having a problem with it finding the correct key. I enter the kindle serial # into the form and give it the filename of the book and it instantly fails with some non-descript error.

        so I fire up PDB and trace thru the code for a while. I get to where it appears to be accumulating lines of text, which produces this:

        MobiDeDrm v0.42.
        Copyright © 2008-2017 The Dark Reverser, Apprentice Harper et al.
        Decrypting Kindle Format 8 ebook: Field of Bones: A Brady Novel of Suspense (Joanna Brady Mysteries)
        Found 2 keys to try after 0.0 seconds
        Crypto Type is: 2
        Error decrypting book after 0.0 seconds: No key found in 2 keys tried.

        I know this book can be DeDRM’d because I imported it into Calibre and can read it. I also processed it with the calibre commandline interface, successfully.

        Calibre reports either 14 or 16 keys found (my memory isn’t great anymore, so I don’t exactly remember), whereas this standalone app reports. 2. This is odd because I only input one serial number, making me wonder if it isn’t even looking in the right place. So far I haven’t had time to dig further, so I don’t know where it is looking.

        If you have any further comments I’d be happy to see them, else I’ll continue to dig.

        thanks in advance!

  5. Is there currently any way to de-drm Barnes & Noble books. I cannot get Nook Study or Nook for PC to run. I can access the books in Nook for Window app. However I cannot get tools to retrieve B&N key.

    • If you don’t already have a key from before Nook for PC and Nookstudy stopped working, the only way I know to get it now is from a rooted Android device with the Nook app or a rooted Nook device.

  6. Hi,
    Can you help me how i can remove DRM of kindle 1.26.55076 ebooks.

    I bought two kindle ebooks but i can’t download & open them in old kindle for PC versions like kindle 1.17 or 1.24 versions.
    When i bought them and i wanted to send them to my kindle for PC version 1.17 or 1.24, this message has been show in Amazon website:
    An app update is required to read this title on the selected device.
    And when i send them to my kindle for PC (old versions), i can’t download them and an error in pop-up window has been shown that mentioned that i should upgrade my kindle for PC to the latest version (1.26.55076).
    But eBook-converter DRM removal softwares can’t remove DRM of them.

    Please help me.

    Thanks in advance

    • It looks like you’ve found books which are only available in KFX format, and possibly only in a recent version of KFX format. Could you post the ASIN for one of the books (The number that’s in their Amazon URL after /dp/ or /gp/)?

      • Also, just to point it out, you have good reason to give the ebooks back. The faster you decide to do that, the easier it is, and I would also say in polite words, why you give them back, with an apology that you thought you could read them on your device, but you where wrong.
        No need to give them money for things you cannot use.

        If you do not give ebooks back frequently it should be no problem, they may not even ask for a reason and just give you the money back, imho the same way you paid (credit-card, store-credit whatever).
        Some people had that done too often and got problems, just so you know.

        The way to do it online is to log in to your account and go to your account -> Manage your content and devices – Content.

  7. I’ve just had a conversion error on an Amazon AZW3 book with 6.6.3 on Win7. It’s a large book (16.3Mb, the collected works of HG Wells) and the error message is :

    calibre, version 3.44.0
    WARNING: Errors while adding: There were problems adding some files, click “Show details” for more information

    Failed to read metadata from the file:
    D:\Upgrades\The Collected Works of H. G. Wells_ Over 120+ Science Fiction Classics, Dystopian Novels & Time Travel Tales; Including Scientific, Political and Historical … The War of the Worlds, Modern Utopia…).azw3
    With error:
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “site-packages\calibre\utils\ipc\pool.py”, line 374, in worker_main
    File “site-packages\calibre\ebooks\metadata\worker.py”, line 87, in read_metadata
    File “site-packages\calibre\ebooks\metadata\worker.py”, line 77, in run_import_plugins
    File “shutil.py”, line 97, in copyfile
    IOError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: u’C:\Users\Chris\AppData\Local\Temp\calibre_o6piuv\sp2ktd_add_books\0\The Collected Works of H. G. Wells_ Over 120+ Science Fiction Classics, Dystopian Novels & Time Travel Tales; Including Scientific, Political and Historical … The War of the Worlds, Modern Utopia\u2026).azw3′

    Is this a known phenomenon?

      • While you found the reason yourself, from the log this has nothing to do with DRM (although I with the standalone I sometimes have to rename ebooks so they work if they have no extension or malformed names). The ebook listed is imho due to its age in the Public Domain and should be available without DRM (something to look for if the ebook is from Amazon, even free), but this is just a guess, so I may be wrong.

        • It’s a re-packaging of a pile of stuff, and for that I was happy to pay £0.49. it certainly did have DRM and 6.6.3 chewed its way through very satisfactorily, once I’d sorted the name out.

  8. Hi. I’m trying to retrieve a key for Barnes and Noble using DeDRM 6.6.3 and Calibre for Windows 10. I verified that I’m using correct email and password by logging onto B&N site – but the plug-in fails to retrieve the key. Is it supposed to work as of June 2019? Thanks

        • If you happen to have a key from before, it may still work. You can find the key on rooted Nook devices or rooted Android devices with the Nook app. As for someone figuring out a new way to get the key that can be added to DeDRM, who knows. This is all on a volunteer basis, and many people have simply moved away from nookbooks.

  9. Having a problem with obtaining a Barnes&Noble key. Windows 10, DeDRM 6.6.3 – using the obtain keyfile dialog, getting a message that username & password incorrect, but I am absolutely positive they are not. Has anyone else experienced a problem? Is B&N blocking somehow?

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